According to the FAO (2010), “Sustainable diets are those diets with low environmental impacts which contribute to food and nutrition security and to healthy life for present and future generations. Sustainable diets are protective and respectful of biodiversity and ecosystems, culturally acceptable, accessible, economically fair and affordable; nutritionally adequate, safe and healthy; while optimizing natural and human resources.”
The Mediterranean diet does not generate long-term deleterious effects on the environment (e.g. biodiversity, soil, water, climate, etc.), society and economy and it surely improves the health, well-being, life style, and quality of life in the general population. Indeed, it is recognized as a healthy dietary pattern and a healthy life style, and it represents a still underexplored resource for valuing biodiversity and understanding human nutrition. It is more than just food, it is a potential model of sustainable development. In the Mediterranean region, there is widespread awareness of the social, cultural, health and economic dimensions of the Mediterranean diet, shared by all Mediterranean people, but now it is time to have its value recognized all over the world.